Governor Gavin Newsom
1303 10th Street, Suite 1173
Sacramento, CA 95814

President pro Tempore Toni Atkins
1021 O Street, Suite 8518
Sacramento, CA 95814

Speaker Honorable Anthony Rendon
State Capitol
Room 219
Sacramento, CA 95814


Dear Governor Newsom and California Legislature,

We, the undersigned elected officials representing communities across California, are outraged by oil company price gouging practices on our constituents and communities. We urge the Legislature to enact strong oversight measures and a price gouging penalty to prevent Big Oil companies from earning excessive profits at the expense of hard working Californians.

The evidence is clear that oil company greed led to the historic gas price spikes that hurt California families. Oil companies made record profits as Californians paid gas prices as much as $2.60 greater than US gas prices at the pump.  

While the price to make a gallon of crude oil did not change, the cost of gasoline skyrocketed as refineries put more money in their own pockets to the detriment of hard-working Californians. In the first nine months of 2022 alone, California’s Big 5 oil refiners posted profits of $67.6 billion — nearly quadruple the $17.6 billion posted for the same period in 2021.Shell’s profits more than doubled, their second-highest quarterly profits ever. PBF Energy profits increased by 1,700%. And Valero increased profits more than 500%. Oil companies made 30% more profits from Californians than any other region in the country or world.

Oil companies were profiting up to $1 billion per day for months, while Californians were struggling to fill up their tanks to get to work. When gas prices spike, low-income people and workers in our communities are hit hardest. At $4 per gallon, 9% of an annual minimum wage salary is spent on gas.  At $6 per gallon, 13% of an annual minimum wage salary is spent on gas.

That’s why we need an independent watchdog agency to ensure transparency and impose a price gouging penalty to hold oil companies accountable and put these excessive profits back into Californian’s wallets.

If a price gouging penalty had been in place at 50 cents per gallon in 2022, California’s five oil refiners would have had to pay a penalty of $3.1 billion back to the public.  In the past twenty years, the 50 cent per gallon profit line was only crossed three times (by Chevron each time). In 2022 all major refiners exceeded it.With this policy, penalties imposed on these oil refiners would have been $1.4 billion for Chevron, $764 million for Marathon, $555 million for PBF, $247 million for Phillips, and $212 million for Valero.

As the Governor and Legislature of California, you have a historic opportunity to lead our state in protecting Californians from Big Oil company greed by providing independent oversight and putting a cap on windfall oil and gas price gouging, to ensure our communities and climate are no longer victimized by industry profiteering.

Establishing a watchdog agency, ensuring market transparency, and enacting a price gouging penalty are critical steps in protecting Californians from the toxic oil industry and holding polluters accountable. EOPA California, representing over 462 elected officials from 49 counties, who are calling for a comprehensive plan to transition our state to 100 percent clean energy production. Together we can protect Californians, our community, and climate.  

We look to you to provide the leadership we need for a safe, healthy, just, and prosperous California.


Elected Officials to Protect America members

Victor AguilarCouncilmemberCity of San LeandroAlameda
Damon L AlexanderCouncilmemberCity of San BernardinoSan Bernardino
Cindy AllenVice MayorCity of Long BeachLos Angeles
Jose AlonsoCouncilmemberCity of MendotaFresno
Sandy AlvarezCouncilmemberCity of San BrunoSan Mateo
Angela AndrewsCouncilmemberCity of HaywardAlameda
Jesse ArreguinMayorCity of BerkeleyAlameda
Dan ArriolaCouncilmemberCity of TracySan Joaquin
Melanie BagbyCouncilmemberCity of CloverdaleSonoma
Soheila BanaCouncilmemberCity of RichmondContra Costa
Brian BarnacleCouncilmemberCity of PetalumaSonoma
Barry BeckCounty AssessorMono CountyMono
Alma BeltranMayorCity of ParlierFresno
Tygarjas BigstyckMayorCity of PacificaSan Mateo
Claudia Bill-de la PeñaFmr. MayorCity of Thousand OaksLos Angeles
Christine BolesCouncilmemberCity of San MateoSan Mateo
Mike BoninFmr. CouncilmemberCity of Los AngelesLos Angeles
Gino BorgioliCouncilmemberCity of Morgan HillSanta Clara
Xouhoa BowenCouncilmemberCity of San LeandroAlameda
Ka'Dijah BrownDirectorBerkeley Unified School DistrictAlameda
Pam Brown SchachterCouncilmemberCity of Rolling Hills EstatesLos Angeles
Chelsea ByersCouncilmemberCity of West HollywoodLos Angeles
Kimberly CalvinCouncilmemberCity of San BernardinoSan Bernardino
Martha Camacho RodríguezDirectorCentral Basin Municipal Water DistrictLos Angeles
Liz CamposCouncilmemberCity of VenturaVentura
Susan CandellCouncilmemberCity of LafayetteContra Costa
Adam CarranzaBoard MemberMountain View School DistrictLos Angeles
Shana CharlesCouncilmemberCity of FullertonOrange
Jorgel ChavezMayor Pro TemCity of Bell GardensLos Angeles
Margaret ClarkCouncilmemberCity of RosemeadLos Angeles
James ColemanCouncilmemberCity of San MateoSan Mateo
Kimberly CostaCouncilmemberCity of LakeportLake
Xilonin Cruz-GonzalezPast PresidentCalifornia School Boards AssociationLos Angeles
Sirley CuevasCouncilmemberCity of LawndaleLos Angeles
Justin CummingsSupervisorSanta Cruz CountySanta Cruz
Chance CutranoCouncilmemberTown of FairfaxMarin
Maria DoerrCouncilmemberCity of Menlo ParkSan Mateo
Mark EnmeierCouncilmemberCity of San ClementeOrange
John EricksonMayor Pro TemCity of West HollywoodLos Angeles
Rodrigo EspinosaSupervisorMerced CountyMerced County
Emmanuel EstradaMayorCity of Baldwin ParkLos Angeles
Triston EzidoreSchool Board MemberCulver City Unified School DistrictLos Angeles
Rachel FaracCouncilmemberCity of NovatoMarin
Patricia Farrar-RivasCouncilmemberCity of SonomaSonoma
Alexis FinemanFmr. MayorTown of San AnselmoMarin
Alex FischFmr. MayorCity of Culver CityLos Angeles
D'Lynda FischerFmr. CouncilmemberCity of PetalumaSonoma
James ForsytheSchool Board MemberVentura Unified School Board TrusteeVentura
Zach FriendSupervisorSanta Cruz CountySanta Cruz
Claudia FrometaMayorCity of DowneyLos Angeles
Alexis Garcia-ArrazolaCouncilmemberCity of SeasideMonterey
Daniel GoldsteinCouncilmemberCity of HaywardAlameda
Philip GomezChairBig Valley Band of Pomo IndiansLake
Susan GorinSupervisorSonoma CountySonoma
Sarah GuerraCouncilmemberCity of SelmaFresno
Martha GuerreroMayorCity of West SacramentoYolo
Ana GutierrezCouncilmemberCity of OrangeOrange
Heidi HarmonFmr. MayorCity of San Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo
Kevin HaroffCouncilmemberCity of LarkspurMarin
Kate HarrisonCouncilmemberCity of BerkeleyAlameda
Lesa HeebnerMayorCity of Solana BeachSan Diego
Steven HernandezMayorCity of CoachellaRiverside
Emmanuel Hernandez SotoCouncilmemberCity of VisaliaTulare
Zach HiltonCouncilmemberCity of GilroySanta Clara
Kimberly HoCouncilmemberCity of WestminsterOrange
Shari HorneCouncilmemberCity of Laguna WoodsOrange
Claudia JimenezCouncilmemberCity of RichmondContra Costa
Stacy JimenezCouncilmemberCity of Foster CitySan Mateo
Jean JoseyCouncilmemberCity of DublinAlameda
Dan KalbPresident Pro TemCity of OaklandAlameda
Rebecca KaplanVice MayorCity of OaklandAlameda
Ardy KassakhianMayorCity of GlendaleLos Angeles
Andy KatzBoard PresidentEast Bay Municipal Utility DistrictAlameda
Kelly KentVice PresidentCulver City Unified School DistrictLos Angeles
Farrah KhanMayorCity of IrvineOrange
Kevin LainezCouncilmemberCity of CommerceLos Angeles
Amourence LeeMayorCity of San MateoSan Mateo
Daniel LeeFmr. MayorCity of Culver CityLos Angeles
Henry LevyTreasurerAlameda CountyAlameda
Sally LieberBoard MemberCalifornia State Board of EqualizationSanta Clara County
Doug LinneyDirectorEast Bay Municipal Utility DistrictAlameda
Corina LopezCouncilmemberCity of San LeandroAlameda
Stephanie LoredoSchool Board MemberCulver City Unified School DistrictLos Angeles
Julie Lythcott-HaimsCouncilmemberCity of Palo AltoSanta Clara
Robert MacaulaySupervisorMadera CountyMadera County
Tony MadrigalCouncilmemberCity of ModestoStanislaus
Steve MadroneSupervisorHumboldt CountyHumboldt
Monica ManaloMayorCity of ArtesiaLos Angeles
Caity MapleCouncilmemberCity of SacramentoSacramento
Angie Marie JimenezCouncilmemberCity of MontebelloLos Angeles
Gayle McLaughlinVice MayorCity of RichmondContra Costa
Yasmine-Imani McMorrinCouncilmemberCity of Culver CityLos Angeles
Lauren MeisterCouncilmemberCity of West HollywoodLos Angeles
Salvador MelendezCouncilmemberCity of MontebelloLos Angeles
Andy MerrillCouncilmemberCity of SonoraTuolumne
John MirischCouncilmemberCity of Beverly HillsLos Angeles
Alexandre MonteiroCouncilmemberCity of HawthorneLos Angeles
Juan Muñoz-GuevaraCouncilmemberCity of LynwoodLos Angeles
James NobleMayor Pro TemCity of BarstowSan Bernardino
Pati NolenSupervisorTehama CountyTehama
Dan O'DonnellCouncilmemberCity of VistaSan Diego
Stephanie OddoCouncilmemberCity of Laguna NiguelOrange
Charles PalmaresCouncilmemberCity of VallejoSolano
Felipe PerezCouncilmemberCity of FirebaughFresno
Paula PerotteMayorSanta Barbara CountySanta Barbara
Max PerreyCouncilmemberCity of Mill ValleyMarin
Thomas PowellCouncilmemberCity of WaterfordStanislaus County
Jim ProvenzaSupervisorYolo CountyYolo
Freddy PuzaCouncilmemberCity of Culver CityLos Angeles
Caitlin QuinnTrusteePetaluma Joint Union High School DistrictSonoma
Gabriel QuintoVice ChairCity of El CerritoContra Costa
Harvey RarbackCouncilmemberCity of Half Moon BaySan Mateo
Cynthia ReplogleFmr. DirectorOceano Community Services DistrictSan Luis Obispo
Artis ReynoldsCouncilmemberCity of Costa MesaOrange
Dale ReynoldsCouncilmemberCity of BlytheRiverside
Chris RicciVice MayorCity of ModestoStanislaus
Krysi RiggsCouncilmemberCity of OrovilleButte
Al RiosCouncilmemberCity of South GateLos Angeles
John RizzoTrusteeCity College of San FranciscoSan Francisco
Deanna RoblesSchool Board MemberBaldwin Park Unified School DistrictLos Angeles
Anthony RochaCouncilmemberCity of SalinasMonterey
Marisol RubioCouncilmemberCity of San RamonAlameda
Deborah RuddockCouncilmemberCity of Half Moon BaySan Mateo
Meghan Sahli-WellsFmr. MayorCity of Culver CityLos Angeles
Rebecca SaltzmanPresidentBay Area Rapid TransitAlameda
Tim SandovalMayorCity of PomonaLos Angeles
Cameron SasaiCouncilmemberCity of PinoleContra Costa
Zak SchwankCouncilmemberCity of TemeculaRiverside
Sepi ShyneMayorCity of West HollywoodLos Angeles
Rene SpringMayor Pro TemCity of Morgan HillSanta Clara
Blair StewartCouncilmemberCity of BreaOrange
Cody StrockCouncilmemberCity of Red BluffTehama
Brian TabatabaiMayor Pro TemCity of West CovinaLos Angeles
Ali TajCouncilmemberCity of ArtesiaLos Angeles
Elizabeth TalbottCouncilmemberCity of WaterfordStanislaus
Rosa M ThomasCouncilmemberTown of Corte MaderaMarin
Jennifer Torres-O'CallaghanCouncilmemberCity of LathropSan Joaquin
Igor TregubFmr. CommissionerCity of BerkeleyAlameda
Jose Trinidad CastanedaCouncilmemberCity of Buena ParkOrange
Steve TrujilloTrusteeCabrillo Community CollegeSanta Cruz and Monterey
Katie ValenzuelaCouncilmemberCity of SacramentoSacramento
Charles VarniDirectorOceano Community Services DistrictSan Luis Obispo
Anna VelazquezMayorCity of SoledadMonterey
Rosalinda VierraCouncilmemberCity of CeresStanislaus
Miguel VillapuduaSupervisorSan Joaquin CountySan Joaquin
Artemio VillegasCouncilmemberCity of MaderaMadera
Randy VillegasTrusteeVisalia Unified School DistrictTulare County
Marni von WilpertCouncilmemberCity of San DiegoSan Diego
Alexander Walker-GriffinMayorCity of HerculesContra Costa
Colleen WallaceMayor Pro TemCity of BanningRiverside
Jeff WangCouncilmemberCity of Union CityAlameda
Princess WashingtonCouncilmemberCity of SuisunSolano
Doug WilsonMayor Pro TemCity of Grance TerraceSan Bernardino
Jenny WongCity AuditorCity of BerkeleyAlameda
Frank YokoyamaCouncilmemberCity of CerritosLos Angeles
Cesar ZepedaCouncilmemberCity of RichmondContra Costa
City CouncilmemberCity of Hermosa Beach
Tribal ChairmanButte. Co
CouncilwomanSan Jacinto
CouncilmemberCity of Rolling Hills Estates
President Juanangle4
MayorCity of Carson
Mayor Pro TemCity of Palm Desert
CouncilmemberCity of San Fernando
Mayor Pro TemCity of Bell Gardens
CouncilmemberCity of claremont
MayorCity of Rolling Hills Estates
CindyAllenVice MayorCity of Long Beach
JoseAlonsoCouncilmemberCity of Mendota
DanArriolaCouncilmemberCity of Tracy
MelanieBagbyCouncilmemberCity of Cloverdale
SoheilaBanaCouncilmemberCity of Richmond
BarryBeckCounty AssessorMono County
AlmaBeltranMayorCity of Parlier
TygarjasBigstyckMayorCity of Pacifica
ClaudiaBill-de la PeñaFmr. MayorCity of Thousand Oaks
ChristineBolesCouncilmemberCity of Pacifica
MikeBoninFmr. CouncilmemberCity of Los Angeles
XouhoaBowenCouncilmemberCity of San Leandro
KaDijahBrownDirectorBerkeley Unified School District
ChelseaByersCouncilmemberCity of West Hollywood
MarthaCamacho RodríguezDirectorCentral Basin Municipal Water District
LizCamposCouncilmemberCity of Ventura
AdamCarranzaBoard MemberMountain View School District
JorgelChavezCouncilmemberCity of Bell Garden
JamesColemanCouncilmemberSan Mateo
KimberlyCostaCouncilmemberCity of Lakeport
XiloninCruz-GonzalezPast PresidentCalifornia School Boards Association
JustinCummingsSupervisorSanta Cruz County
ChanceCutranoCouncilmemberTown of Fairfax
MariaDoerrCouncilmemberCity of Menlo Park
MarkEnmeierCouncilmemberCity of San Clemente
JohnEricksonMayor Pro TemporeCity of West Hollywood
RodrigoEspinosaSupervisorMerced County
TristonEzidoreSchool Board MemberCulver City Unified School District
RachelFaracCouncilmemberCity of Novato
PatriciaFarrar-RivasCouncilmemberCity of Sonoma
AlexisFinemanFmr. MayorTown of San Anselmo
AlexFischFmr. MayorCity of Culver City
D'Lynda HethorneFischerFmr. CouncilmemberCity of Petaluma
JamesForsytheTrusteeVentura Unified School Board
ClaudiaFrometaMayorCity of Downey
AlexisGarcia-ArrazolaCouncilmemberCity of Seaside
DanielGoldsteinCouncilmemberCity of Hayward
SusanGorinSupervisorSonoma County
MarthaGuerreroMayorCity of West Sacramento
AnaGutierrezCouncilmemberCity of Orange
HeidiHarmonFmr. MayorCity San Luis Obispo
KevinHaroffCouncilmember and Fmr. MayorCity of Larkspur
KateHarrisonCouncilmemberCity of Berkeley
StevenHernandezMayorCity of Coachella
EmmanuelHernandez SotoCouncilmemberCity of Visalia
ZachHiltonCouncilmemberCity of Gilroy
KimberlyHoCouncilmember and Fmr. Vice MayorCity of Westminster
ShariHorneCouncilmemberCity of Laguna Woods
Angie MarieJimenezCouncilmemberCity of Montebello
ClaudiaJimenezCouncilmemberCity of Richmond
JeanJoseyCouncilmemberCity of Dublin
DanKalbPresident Pro TemCity of Oakland
RebeccaKaplanCouncilmemberCity of Oakland
ArdyKassakhianMayorCity of Glendale
AndyKatzBoard PresidentEast Bay Municipal Utility District
KellyKentVice PresidentCulver City Unified School District
FarrahKhanMayorCity of Irvine
CalvinKimberlyCouncilmemberCity of San Bernardino
KevinLainezCouncilmemberCity of Commerce
DanielLeeFmr. MayorCity of Culver City
AmourenceLeeMayorCity of San Mateo
HenryLevyTreasurerAlameda County
SallyLieberBoard MemberCalifornia State Board of Equalization
DougLinneyPresidentEast Bay Municipal Utility District
CorinaLopezCouncilmemberCity of San Leandro
StephanieLoredoSchool Board MemberCulver City Unified School District
RosaM ThomasCouncilmemberCity of Corte Madera
RobertMacaulaySupervisorMadera County
TonyMadrigalCouncilmemberCity of Modesto
SteveMadroneSupervisorHumboldt County
MonicaManaloMayorCity of Artesia
CaityMapleCouncilmemberCity of Sacramento
GayleMcLaughlinVice MayorCity of Richmond
Yasmine-ImaniMcMorrinCouncilmemberCity of Culver City
LaurenMeisterCouncilmemberCity of West Hollywood
AndyMerrillCouncilmemberCity of Sonora
AlexandreMonteiroCouncilmemberCity of Hawthorne
JuanMuñoz-GuevaraCouncilmemberCity of Lynwood
DanODonnellCouncilmemberCity of Vista
MaxPerreyCouncilmemberCity of Mill Valley
ThomasPowellCouncilmemberCity of Waterford
JimProvenzaSupervisorYolo County
FreddyPuzaCouncilmemberCity of Culver City
CaitlinQuinnVice PresidentPetaluma Joint Union High School District
GabrielQuintoVice ChairCity of El Cerrito
HarveyRarbackCouncilmemberCity of Half Moon Bay
CynthiaReplogleFmr. DirectorOceano Community Services District
ChrisRicciVice MayorCity of Modesto
KrysiRiggsCouncilmemberCity of Oroville
DeannaRoblesSchool Board MemberBaldwin Park School District
MarisolRubioCouncilmemberCity of San Ramon
DeborahRuddockCouncilmemberCity of Half Moon Bay
MeghanSahli-WellsFmr. MayorCity of Culver City
RebeccaSaltzmanPresidentBay Area Rapid Transit
ReneSpringMayor Pro TemCity of Morgan Hill
BlairStewartCouncilmemberCity of Brea
CodyStrockCouncilmemberCity of Red Bluff
BrianTabatabaiMayor Pro TemCity of West Covina
Ali SajadTajCouncil Member & Fmr. MayorCity of Artesia
ElizabethTalbottCouncilmemberCity of Waterford
JenniferTorresocallaghanCouncilmemberCity of Lathrop
IgorTregubFmr. CommissionerCity of Berkeley Rent Stabilization Board
KatieValenzuelaCouncilmemberCity of Sacramento
CharlesVarniDirectorOceano Community Services District
RosalindaVierraCouncilmemberCity of Ceres
RandyVillegasTrusteeVisalia Unified School District
AlexWalker-GriffinMayorCity of Hercules
ColleenWallaceMayor Pro TemCity of Banning
JeffWangCouncilmemberCity of Union City
PrincessWashingtonCouncilmemberCity of Suisun City
JennyWongCity AuditorCity of Berkeley
FrankYokoyamaCouncilmemberCity of Cerritos
CesarZepedaCouncilmemberCity of Richmond
BrianBarnacleVice MayorCity of Petaluma
SirleyCuevasCouncilmemberCity of Lawndale
LesaHeebnerMayorCity of Solana Beach
FelipePerezMayorCity of Firebaugh
JamesNobleMayor Pro TemCity of Barstow
PaulaPerotteMayorSanta Barbara County
SarahGuerraCouncilmemberCity of Selma
EmmanuelEstradaMayorCity of Baldwin Park
SandyAlvarezCouncilmemberCity of San Bruno
JulieLythcott-HaimsCouncilmemberCity of Palo Alto
CharlesPalmaresCouncilmemberCity of Vallejo
StephanieOddoCouncilmemberLaguna Niguel
ZakSchwankMayorCity of Temecula
DougWilsonMayor Pro TemCity of Grance Terrace
SalvadorMelendezCouncilmemberCity of Montebello

*Titles reflect elected position at the time of signing.


1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2002. “Sixth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.” https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sixth-assessment-report-working-group-ii/

2. California Energy Commission. 2021. “SB 100 Joint Agency Report.” https://www.energy.ca.gov/sb100

3. California Energy Commission. May 2022. “Draft Commission Report: Offshore Wind Energy Development off the California Coast.” https://www.energy.ca.gov/publications/2022/offshore-wind-energy-development-california-coast-maximum-feasible-capacity-and

4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. October 2020. “2020 Offshore Wind Resource Assessment for the California Pacific Outer Continental Shelf.” https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/77642.pdf

5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. November 2020. “The Cost of Floating Offshore Wind Energy in California Between 2019 and 2032.” https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/77384.pdf

6. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2016. “Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios.”  https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65352.pdf

7. Environment California Research & Policy Center and the Frontier Group. March 2021. “Offshore Wind for America: The promise and potential of clean energy off our coasts.” https://environmentamerica.org/sites/environment/files/reports/AME_Offshore-Wind-For-America_2021.pdf?_ga=2.170387237.424246226.1653340209-1568289227.1651504516

8. Lost Coast Outpost. May 2021. “Newsom’s Budget Includes $11M for Port of Humboldt Bay Development to Support Emerging Offshore Wind Industry.” https://lostcoastoutpost.com/2021/may/19/newsoms-budget-includes-11m-port-humboldt-bay-supp/

9. American Jobs Project. February 2019. “The California Offshore Wind Project: A Vision for Industry Growth.” http://americanjobsproject.us/ajp-state/california

10. Call Matters. March 2021. “California could lead the nation in offshore wind energy.” https://calmatters.org/commentary/my-turn/2021/03/california-could-lead-the-nation-in-offshore-wind-energy/

11. The White House. May 2021. “FACT SHEET: Biden Administration Opens Pacific Coast to New Jobs and Clean Energy Production with Offshore Wind Development.” https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/05/25/fact-sheet-biden-administration-opens-pacific-coast-to-new-jobs-and-clean-energy-production-with-offshore-wind-development/

12. San Francisco Chronicle. March 2021. Offshore wind can give California more renewable energy and well-paying jobs.” https://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/openforum/article/Offshore-wind-can-give-California-more-renewable-15998376.php

13. Brightline Defense. December 2020. “California Offshore Wind: Winding Up for Economic Growth & Environmental Equity.” https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5f434962cbc7a227a863c879/t/5fd959830384a13720d3d61e/1608079766544/Brightline-OffshoreWind-Report-12-6-2020.pdf

14. Call Matters. March 2021. “California could lead the nation in offshore wind energy.” https://calmatters.org/commentary/my-turn/2021/03/california-could-lead-the-nation-in-offshore-wind-energy/

15. IEA. May 2021. “Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector.” https://www.iea.org/reports/net-zero-by-2050

16. Lexology. April 2021. “Offshore wind can meet 90% of US energy demand by 2050 says study.” https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=66443b67-2e7d-4290-9ae4-ae4d9f7da5a9